LOPA (Layer of Protection Analysis)

Consultant/Trainer: Jan Pranger

Layer of Protection Analysis (LOPA) is a simplified quantitative tool for assessing risk of scenarios already identified. HAZOP studies often yield a number of scenarios that need further elaboration in order to demonstrate achieving the target risk. LOPA, being the industry standard, is an easy-to-understand tool to identify, assess, challenge and document existing risk reduction conditions and safeguards. It shows whether risk targets are met or exceeded and provides a rational allocation of equipment and personnel.


All Petrogenium courses can be tailored for awareness/inexperienced staff, for intermediate and for experienced personnel. Furthermore the course can be customized for a specific refinery, plant or unit. The option for post-course consultancy/help-desk support is also available.
Participants may include:
  • HSEQ professionals
  • Process/Process Control engineers
  • Maintenance managers
  • Production managers
  • Consultants

Learning Objectives

  • Understanding LOPA Study Methodology
  • Participating in, Leading and Organising HAZOP Studies
  • Revalidating HAZOP Studies
  • Understanding PFD and SIL of safeguards


Day 1: Layer of Protection Analysis
  • Concept of Independent Protection Layers
  • What is LOPA – Comparison with other risk analysis methods
  • Purpose and benefits of LOPA
  • Risk Acceptance Criteria
  • Options for Risk Reduction – relation to Risk Acceptance Criteria – different types of IPLs
  • Developing scenarios, severity and linking to the risk criteria
  • Identifying Initiating Events and Enabling Conditions
  • Determination of Initiating Event Frequency
  • Conditional Modifiers
  • Identifying Independent Protection Layers – Requirements for IPLs
  • Determining the Mitigated Frequency of Scenarios
  • Determining scenario risk acceptance
  • Determination of Probability of Failure on Demand (PFD) and Safety Integrity Level (SIL) of existing safeguards
  • Determination of further risk reduction, allocation to IPLs